Women are eight times more likely than men to get urinary tract infections, mainly because female anatomy makes it easier for fecal bacteria to reach the urinary tract. Lower UTIs, the most common type, develop in the bladder and cause abdominal pain, pelvic pressure, or burning urination. Upper UTIs, in which the infection has spread to the kidneys, are more serious and harder to treat; symptoms include back pain, fever and nausea. Menopausal and postmenopausal women are at higher risk because they have lower levels of oestrogen--the hormone triggers production of protective antimicrobial proteins in the bladder.

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