Meanwhile, skin is also affected by: 


Sun exposure and DNA damage from UV rays account for up to 90 per cent of skin damage that causes wrinkles and pigmentation.

Oxidation and inflammation

Smoking, stress, poor diet (causing lack of vitamins and minerals), alcohol intake and pollutants can all trigger internal inflammation and generate free radicals, which damage skin cells and interfere with skin repair. This inflammation can elevate metalloproteinase enzymes, which then interfere with collagen production.


Through this process excess sugars in the body bind to proteins, resulting in collagen and elastin becoming more stiff, generating skin ageing from the inside. 


Stress hormones such as cortisol and lack of growth hormone as we get older, all add to visible signs of skin ageing. 

Structural changes

Over the years lifestyle, body function and age change the health and function of epidermal and cell membrane lipids, mitochondria (the powerhouses of skin cells) and collagen and elastin, which are produced at lower levels.